The earliest serenade had fifty strings, so it was also called "fifty strings". "Book of Songs" records that "a fair lady is a friend of the piano", "I have guests, and I play the sheng". Se had disappeared for thousands of years, but now "Youlan Han Music" presents the legendary voice on the stage again. In the deep fragrance of nature.
Ancient stringed instruments. Its history is long. "Book of Music" quoted "World Edition": "Sacrifice as a serpent". According to the records of "Rituals", in the ancient village drinking ceremony, village shooting ceremony, and Yan ceremony, all sang with se accompaniment. From the Warring States Period to the Qin and Han Dynasties, the "Music of Yuse" prevailed. During the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties, the se was a common musical instrument to accompany Xianghe songs. It was used for Qingle in the Sui and Tang Dynasties. Later, it was only used for court music and Dingji music.
There are many discoveries in the archaeological excavations of the ancient selves in the Zhou and Han dynasties. Unearthed from the Chu Tomb No. 1 Liucheng Bridge in Changsha, Hunan Province (about the late Spring and Autumn Period or the early Warring States Period), it is the earliest known object. Chu tombs in Xinyang, Henan, Jiangling, Hubei and other places, the tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng in Suixian, Hubei, and the Han tomb No. 1 in Mawangdui, Changsha have all been unearthed. .
From the Spring and Autumn Period to the Qin and Han dynasties, dozens of ancient selves have been unearthed, but most of them are incomplete or the position of the columns is unknown. However, the serpent unearthed from the Han Tomb No. 1 Mawangdui in Changsha is well preserved.
Although the strings are decayed and deteriorated, they still remain in their original positions, and the position of the columns is relatively clear, which provides us with direct material evidence for understanding Gusser's Zhang strings and tuning. The twenty-five strings of this sere are divided into three groups by three tail mountains, including the inner nine, the middle seventh, and the outer nine. The column position of the inner and outer nine strings is relatively regular, and the pitches of the tuning are the same; the column position of the middle seventh string is more disordered, but it also vaguely shows that it is connected with the inner nine strings for pitch progression. Calculated from the ratio of the effective chord length of each column position, it can be known that it is tuned according to the pentatonic scale.
The above-mentioned ancient selves were lost to the Southern and Northern Dynasties. Since the Tang and Song Dynasties, the serpents recorded in the literature and used by the palaces of the past dynasties are quite different from the ancient serpents in terms of shape, string tension and tuning method. Xiong Penglai (1246-1323) at the end of the Song Dynasty and the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty compiled six volumes of the "Ser Pu". The book describes the form and playing method of se, and there are twelve old scores for singing the Book of Songs and twenty new scores created by him, as well as music scores for sacrificial music in the Confucian Temple. At that time, there was a long Yueshan at the beginning and the end, and there were a corresponding number of string holes on the outside of the two mountains, and the strings were stretched in turn. There are a total of twenty-five strings, and the pitches are arranged according to the twelve rhythms. The first string in the middle (the thirteenth string) is not played, and the other twenty-four strings can play twenty-four notes in two octaves. Play the "middle" (lower octave) with your right hand; play "clear" (upper octave) with your left hand. The left and right hands can also play high and low octave chords at the same time. The basic fingering is to pluck the strings in the inner and outer directions with the big, food, middle, and no-name fingers respectively. There are eight types in total, called smashing, holding, wiping, picking, hooking, tickling, hitting, and picking. The tuning method of later generations has changed slightly, and the middle string can also be played, and the strings are tuned according to the pentatonic or seven-tone scale. The left hand can press the left chord section of the fret to take the change when necessary.
The Music Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Arts has a collection of the early Qing Dynasty serenade. Length 207, width 43 cm. Twenty-five strings. Entirely painted in black lacquer with golden floral motifs. In the 1930s, the Shanghai Datong Music Club reformed and produced two serpents, one with fifty strings, named "Paosi ser". Or eight strings share one column), and live zhen is used outside Yueshan to facilitate tuning. The other is a hundred-stringed serge, which uses the method of double-row connecting columns and inserting the strings to arrange the strings. It has made useful explorations in increasing the volume of the ser, improving the timbre and making it easier to play.
As of August 2008, Zhang Kaiyi and Zhou Dunfa of Wuhan National Musical Instrument Factory made an imitation 25-string chuse based on the real chuse excavated by archaeological excavation and absorbing the reasonable parts of the modern zheng structure. Length 176, width 42, height 10 cm. Arpeggios, chords, chords and fast melodies can be played. You can also use techniques such as kneading and glissando, which have a unique charm. He once performed in the "Chime Bell Music and Dance" by the Hubei Provincial Song and Dance Troupe.