How Erhu Teachers Do Well the Foundation of Erhu Performance and Improve Teaching

68 views · Organized by 钟离 on 2022-06-16

Because music has the function of educating sentiment, developing intelligence, and cultivating students' concentration, endurance and perfect work style, many students choose to learn a musical instrument playing technique in childhood, but musical instrument playing not only requires specific talent, but also correct learning methods are also very important.

Due to the diligent pursuit of the art career, several of the students he has tutored in recent years have been admitted to the PLA Academy of Arts, Tianjin Conservatory of Music, Shanxi University and other well-known universities, and many of them have won first prizes in the province's art performances for many times. Award, I also won the 10th Shanxi Province Xinghua Award. This article intends to combine my many years of erhu education practice and talk about my experience and experience, in order to play a role in attracting jade.

A basic stage teaching

1. Basic teaching places high demands on teachers' patience, love, psychology and methods

The basic education stage is actually the most difficult period. At this stage, many students' learning goals are still very vague. Some are on a whim, some are blindly following the trend, and some are indeed talented in music. At this time, students cannot persevere because they are young and active or spoiled. During this period Teachers should be good at guiding, practice more songs that students are familiar with, and gradually cultivate students' interest. In learning, the teacher is both a teacher and a manager, and more importantly, a guide. They should encourage students' achievements in time and help students overcome their fear of difficulties. At this stage, only under the guidance of the correct method and taking correct practice can the success be achieved. Good initial foundation.

2. Etude training is very important, to overcome the tendency to rush for success and ignore it

Erhu Etude is an important part of erhu basic training. As the name suggests, Etude is purely for technical practice and improvement. In erhu practice, it usually mainly includes scale practice, fingering practice, bowing practice, hand-changing practice, rhythm practice, local style practice, and key transfer practice. And each part contains many exercises with different emphasis, such as longbow, quickbow, pad bow, dunk bow, throwing bow and so on in bowing practice. The quality of these content training is directly related to the quality of the performance of the big piece, and it is necessary to practice vigorously.

3. Try to express yourself as much as possible in the practice music training

In erhu teaching, we can often see that some students are more practical in technique, they are responsive, their learning progress is fast, and some difficult skills can be easily accomplished, so they are neat and tidy in playing music, but after listening to their performance , you always have the feeling that you have music but no music, that you have not entered the room even though you are in the hall, you cannot resonate with the audience, and make people immersed in the artistic conception of the music. For example, when playing the magnificent piece "Sanmenxia Imagination", in the allegro part, it always seems to be listing and accumulating skills, lacking in expressing feelings; in the lyrical part of the medium board, it often appears dry and rigid, Lack of delicacy, of course, it is not artistic charm, and students often feel distressed. They complain that they cannot immerse themselves in the artistic conception of music during performances, and they cannot express their emotions. There are many reasons, such as the narrow knowledge of students, the poor artistic accomplishment of accumulation and cohesion of life experience. But I think: because the learning and improvement of erhu playing skills are often obtained from etudes, and most etudes lack a certain melody, and teachers are not good at inspiring students with rich associations, in etudes It is also used to perform artistic processing with a certain musical mood. Then, over time, a habit will be formed. As soon as you pick up the piano, you will practice skills. The technique will improve, but the musical expression will be impossible to talk about; no matter how high the technical level is , and can only learn to be a craftsman who draws gourds in the same way, but never become a musician. The practice skills are for the purpose of pulling the music well, and the skills should be integrated into the music mood to make it blend together. Therefore, in addition to highlighting a specific content, special attention should be paid to making it as melodic as possible, because the melody can Is it not the best of both worlds to express emotions independently, form a musical image, and melody the etude? In teaching, we use a large number of songs and pieces of music for beginner erhu etudes, which has a good teaching effect. Of course, some exercises like scales and arpeggios are not required to be melodic, but there must be a wide range of musical associations to evoke a certain musical mood in oneself. The purpose of sound and affection in the sound.

4. The sound quality, intonation, and tone training should be placed in a prominent position and paid attention to

Since the performance of erhu players is appreciated by the audience, the training of the player's intonation, sound quality and timbre is particularly important. It is necessary to carefully analyze the playing methods of famous masters, take the essence of them, and practice repeatedly in strict accordance with professional standards. In artistic practice, poor and monotonous changes in the performer's voice will result in an unsightly timbre. Students should be trained to use different pressing strengths with the left hand, different finger shaking methods, different finger shaking amplitudes, different finger shaking tightness, The difference in the strength of the right-hand bow and the position of the bow hair touching the string can make the color, sound quality and timbre of the sound change obviously, making the sound bright or dim; delicate or rough; gorgeous or simple; soft or rigid Hard; thick or floating; round or dry.

Second stage of teaching

The improvement stage is a leap stage from quantitative change to qualitative change. It is a comprehensive application of the skills and styles learned. At this stage, the following points should be paid attention to:

1. Strengthen the training of multi-ethnic and multi-style music

Music is the common wealth of all ethnic groups in the world. In order to facilitate mutual exchange and reference with the world and expand the influence of national musical instruments in the world, in recent years, with the efforts of some musicians, many famous violin songs have been adapted into erhu songs. In practical teaching, we Some repertoires are selected as teaching content. Such as Bumblebee Flying, Childas, Song of the Wanderer, Concerto in E major, and Concerto in A minor are used as intensive training contents. These repertoires expand students' horizons, make students realize the powerful expressive power of erhu, and improve their ability to study in depth. initiative.

2. Emphasize, take into account all aspects, cultivate comprehensive skills, and continuously improve the performance level

With the development of erhu from accompaniment instrument to solo instrument, and the continuous creation of new pieces, higher requirements have been placed on erhu playing skills. Erhu skill practice is divided into three parts: pressing the strings with the left hand, bowing with the right hand, and coordination with both hands. The left hand should pay attention to the intonation problem. The bowing of the right hand mainly solves the change of the intensity of the sound, and the change of intensity is the main means to solve the emotional expression of the music. This pulling and pushing seems simple, but it is difficult to master and is often ignored by students. Therefore, teachers should guide students to work hard in the bow. The coordination of two hands is simpler than others, but the changes of one bow with multiple notes, one note with multiple bows, and one bow with one note; the requirements of strength and speed; and the requirements of style are also very important. In the training of skills, it should be arranged gradually and scientifically from simple to complex, from slow to fast, from easy to difficult.

3. Strive to cultivate an independent playing style and gradually cultivate innovative ability

In teaching, the subject is the teacher and the object is the student. The teacher must strictly require the student and the student must respect the teacher. However, students are not passive. If teachers cannot fully mobilize students' enthusiasm for learning and creativity, and continuously cultivate them, they will not teach students well. When students learn from teachers, they will naturally try to imitate teachers in terms of playing methods, music processing and artistic style. This is necessary for beginners, but they cannot be allowed to develop, which is detrimental to students' growth. Students' self-learning ability should be continuously cultivated, so that students can gradually learn to be their own teachers. In fact, many famous performers have different styles from their teachers.

4. It is necessary to strengthen the cultivation of music, literature and history, and strengthen the understanding of the writing background and content of musical works

In order to fully express the original intention of the work, the students' performance must have an in-depth analysis and understanding of the work. For example, if you want to play "The Newlyweds" well, you must study ancient literature and Chinese history, so that you can achieve euphemism, simplicity, delicate and changeable performance in the "Welcome" section; The years of war, which are raging and chaotic, can only have great artistic appeal. Another example is the performance of the work "Jianghe Shui". This piece of work "Jianghe Shui" depicts the scene of a woman in the old society at the riverside to sacrifice her husband who died in a foreign country due to military service, thus showing the working people's love for the work. The accusation and hatred of the old society, so the use of left-hand vibrato, the contrast of strength, etc., must be centered on reflecting such a specific environment, specific characters, and specific thoughts and feelings. For example, in order to describe the scene of women crying and grief-stricken in the face of the surging river, the tone is required to be more dreary and wailing, and the shaking of fingers should be mainly based on pressure and other methods, and should be used more often. Late trembling. In addition, in the latter part of the music, in order to express the emotions of resentment and resistance, it is required to enhance its intensity and contrast range and so on. Only by giving full play to the erhu playing skills, accurately shaping the image of the music and expressing the thoughts and feelings of the work, can a good artistic effect be produced.

5. Pay attention to the application of body language, and strive to infect the audience intuitively

Audiences have a better understanding of body language regardless of race, culture, age, or education. Therefore, it is necessary to make better use of body language to overcome the rigidity, incoordination and unnaturalness of the body. It is necessary to learn more from dance movements, so that the content of the song and body language can be combined into one, and strive to achieve the effect of integrating the human and the piano.

Reference materials and contributors

Involving musical instruments

Erhu (Pinyin: Erhu) originated in the Tang Dynasty, called "Xiqin", and has a history of more than a thousand years. It is a traditional Chinese stringed instrument. Erhu, or Erxian Huqin, also known as "Nanhu" and "Omzi", is one of the main bowed and stringed instruments (wiping strings) in the Chinese national musical instrument family.

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