In erhu performance, various techniques and combinations of the left and right hands are based on stable "dynamic stereotypes". Due to many factors, it is inevitable to encounter some difficulties and some technical obstacles in daily practice. Among them, scientific practice methods such as "slow practice" and "decomposition practice" caused by the thought of "rushing for success" are the main reasons for many problems. Some common technical obstacles are summarized as follows:
Since the erhu has neither a fingerboard nor a fixed tone, the accuracy of the tone has always been the most important thing for players. Most people are accustomed to thinking that "inaccurate sound" is mostly caused by the position of the left hand and the unsure of the action of changing the handle. In fact, the cause of the inaccurate pitch is first of all the dullness of hearing and the lack of accurate "pitch prediction" in the performance (that is, the accurate height of the pitch is found in the "inner hearing" before pressing the pitch). A player with a keen sense of hearing will naturally feel uncomfortable or even stimulated when he hears an inaccurate tone in his performance, so he subconsciously adjusts the position of the left finger until this The pitch is so far, which fully illustrates the importance of hearing for controlling pitch. For this reason, in the process of training pitch control, teachers should first pay attention to the students' ability to listen and distinguish pitch differences, teach them to master the "prediction of pitch", and then teach them how to accurately press the pitch and change the pitch. In the process of practicing pitch control, the player must concentrate on the auditory attention from beginning to end, otherwise it will be difficult to master the law of pitch control. In fact, the control process of intonation during performance is a process in which the performer gradually forms a correct "kinematic chain" ("Kinematics" language) through the correction of the auditory sense, and after countless repeated practice of the precise pressing of the tone and the position of the handle. Although some blind performers are blind, they control the intonation very well during performance. In addition to having a keen inner hearing, the accuracy of the performance is the key to solving the intonation problem; The position and every key position are well known, and they hardly touch the wrong key in the performance, which shows the importance of high concentration and mastering the correct "kinematic chain" in the performance. Some performers entered the practice of music before they had mastered some basic performance movements because they progressed too fast at the beginning. As a result, when they are playing, their hearing cannot be very concentrated, and they often habitually stare at their fingers or bows with their eyes. These subconscious visual movements interfered with their auditory control process, resulting in inaccurate performances. It is embodied in the following aspects:
(1) The pitch of the empty strings is not accurate, and the interval relationship between the inner and outer strings is larger or smaller than a perfect fifth;
(2) The interval relationship of the tones is not accurate.
When encountering the above two problems, teachers should find a way to use a musical instrument with a fixed pitch (preferably a piano or an electronic organ) to help students carry out repeated pitch contrast listening and discrimination exercises in the way of "ear training". They should learn to use their hearing to identify, capture and remember the pitch of each different tone, as well as the various interval relationships in the process of sound connection, so as to train and adjust their hearing ability and cultivate a keen "inner" Hearing".
(3) habitually press the tone higher or lower during the performance (relative to the open string tone).
This is mainly caused by the lack of active hearing and the lack of strict requirements on intonation during the long-term piano practice. In case of this problem, the method of "slow practice" should be used to gradually adjust the stability of the hearing and correct the inaccurate tones by consciously comparing the pitch of the open strings or using natural overtones. The best way is to practice the 7-tone scales and arpeggios of different keys more, so that it is easier to find and correct the inaccurate tones.
(4) The semitone relationship is not strict.
In the initial stage of this problem, it is mainly manifested in the natural chromatic relationship of the first key roll call. Generally, the chromatic intervals of the third, fourth and seventh and eighth steps are easy to be wider. train. When encountering this problem, teachers should give students more exercises on the heptatonic scale, and teach them to control the chromatic pitch between the third and fourth scales and the seventh and eighth in the natural major, so that they can gradually become accustomed to accepting strict The sound of the chromatic relationship is prepared for hearing the chromatic and changing tones that frequently appear in complex music.
All in all, the key to solving the pitch problem is to seriously train the player's "inner hearing", "pitch prediction" and form a correct "kinematic chain" in the process of practice, so as to cultivate the player's sense of responsibility and grasp when controlling pitch. sex. This requires a certain time process, and also depends on the player's attention to the intonation problem. The sharper the hearing and the more skilled the technique, the shorter the process of correcting the inaccuracy. When you feel uncomfortable when you hear an inaccurate sound and correct it immediately, the problem of intonation is close to being solved.
Fundamentally, the main causes of "rhythm instability" are insensitive rhythm sensations, rhythm rhythm sensations, and beat awareness. In the performance, it is mainly manifested in the following three points: (1) catch the tempo when playing the allegro (fast bow); (2) the duration of the long note is not enough, the timing of the notes behind the syncopation and the slur in the slur is not sufficient; (3) ) rhythm is fast and slow.
The problem of "catching the tempo when playing allegro" (fast bow) is common in erhu performances, mainly manifested in the allegro of the music and the faster and faster the continuous fast bow (for example, in the fast middle and In the fast bow section of "The Grapes Are Ripe"), the reasons for this are in addition to the rhythm and feeling factors, the improper action of changing the handle, the improper mastery of the fast bow method and the lack of tacit understanding of the two hands during the performance, etc. All these phenomena will be caused. In addition to the method of patiently adjusting the fast bow and changing the handle, the method of "slow practice" should be used to practice the melody played in sections and sentences, among which the notes with more beat changes and the melody with frequent string changes. In particular, focus on practicing. After you have a grasp of the technical aspects, your mental state will be more relaxed and confident, which will help stabilize the rhythm feeling in the performance.
The problem of "insufficient duration of the long note, insufficient timing of the notes after the syncopation and the slur in the slur" often causes the tempo to be unstable, to be pulled faster and faster, to catch the tempo, etc. (for example, in "Red Plum Capriccio" bB to adjust the allegro and the second part of "Listening to Song" in the allegro), which directly affects the performance of the performance. The main reason for the formation is the lack of a clear and stable sense of rhythm and rhythm and a strict sense of rhythm in the heart, so that the tempo of the long and medium notes is often insufficient, and the timing of the syncopation is not enough. The notes are always played in a hurry. When encountering these situations, you should first carefully analyze the rhythm values of different notes, and patiently adjust the rhythm of the rhythm and the feeling of rhythm changes with methods such as "beating the beat" and "singing the score". In addition, the reasonable bow distribution and the accurate feeling when pressing the left finger are also important factors to ensure the stability of the rhythm.
The phenomenon of "suddenly fast and slow rhythm" is mainly caused by the unstable feeling of the player's inner rhythm and technical uncertainty. Some students blindly stretch the piece in order to "pull the progress". As a result, due to the heavy technical burden and inability to perform, the easy parts of the performance become faster and faster, and the unsure parts have to be slowed down. Some have also developed the bad habit of hitting the beat with their feet. As a result, the more they beat the beat, the more panicked their hearts become. The performance falls into a messy situation, and the rhythm becomes more unstable. In this case, you should first develop good and step-by-step learning methods and habits, and pay attention to cultivate a keen and stable "inner rhythm" on the premise of mastering various playing skills. Play with a stable psychological feel, natural coordination of playing techniques and sharp rhythm changes.
Some players often appear mechanically stiff and slack when they play the piano. The consequences of these uncoordinated actions are unstable pressing position, unsure of pitch and lack of musical expression. The main reasons for this are: The principle of the action of the switch is not very clear. Some players use hand and finger movements as the dominant player when changing the handle, resulting in clumsy and rigid movements, which affect the natural connection of the music melody and the stability of the intonation when pressing; The up and down concave-convex movements are mainly used. Not only does the movement appear mechanically weak, but also the sound connection is incoherent due to excessive stickiness. At the same time, the speed of the movement is obviously affected in the Allegro melody. The correct way to change the handle should use the forearm as the leading part of the action, and the hands and fingers cooperate with each other, and finally complete the meticulous action process with a "kinematic chain" transition, so that the melody of the music has been smoothly connected.
In the process of practical application, the changing skills of the Erhu can be divided into two types: "technical" and "expressive" in performance. The "technical" switch is suitable for faster music melodies, requiring a clean and neat process of movement, with no or less glissando. The "expressive" switch is similar to the playing techniques of "Chuo" and "Note", which are divided into "first slide finger" and "tail slide finger", both of which use a separate bow and the same finger to play a slower lyrical melody Slide to play. The method of changing the handle of the "first sliding finger" is to carry out the movement of the bow and changing the handle at the same time, and the effect is similar to adding a decorative portamento in front of the melody sound; The action is similar to the effect of adding a decorative portamento after the sound before the change. To sum up, in addition to solving the general problem of changing bars, players should also seriously study, research and master other methods of changing bars such as "first" and "tail" finger sliding, so as to ensure a smoother performance. Strive for performance and richer musical performance.
The technique of changing strings is an important bowing method to connect the music melody during performance. It does not have any marks in the score, and the player only needs to press the notes according to the fingering to complete. The erhu's string-changing technique can be used in both continuous and split bows, but in allegro melody, split bows are mostly used to play. When playing a split bow, it can be roughly divided into "finger active", "forearm active" and "finger-wrist combination" according to the bow movement of the right hand. Combine the movements of the big arm (ie the upper arm). Due to the fast speed of the action, if the string is changed improperly, it will cause tension or stalemate in the performance. Some even make the action of changing strings more forcefully due to psychological tension, resulting in the interruption of the sound connection at the momentary tone or the confusion of the melody. In fact, only when the melody of the music requires a warm mood (such as the continuous double-bow string-changing phrase in the Allegro of "Red Plum Capriccio" in bB), the combination of the big arm (upper arm) is what is needed in the string-changing technique. Except for music melodies that have special needs for dynamics, general string changing actions do not require much force. Sometimes the right hand with less strength can be more relaxed, and the feeling of changing strings will be sharper and lighter.
In addition, in addition to the improper use of string changing methods, the lack of slow practice can sometimes be the reason for the inappropriate use of skills in performance. Some performers have just learned a certain skill, but they are not willing to consolidate it through slow practice. As a result, the connection process of some skills in performance is disconnected, which affects the normal performance of music. For this reason, in the process of practice, not only should the string-changing skills be "set in place", but also the different methods of string-changing movements should be consolidated by the method of "slow practice". Only by paying attention to every technical link can we be foolproof and get the desired effect in the performance.
This is always common and often encountered by beginners of erhu. It not only directly affects the quality of performance, but also easily causes huge psychological pressure and physical obstacles to the performers. Some performers or students of music colleges, driven by the idea of "rushing for success", often appear to be mentally frivolous when practicing the piano, appearing sloppy, inattentive and impatient. They tend to get nervous when they encounter performances, competitions, or even exams. They often discount their performance, and sometimes even mess up the performance due to inappropriate fast bowing methods, thus destroying the entire performance. The main reasons for the formation are the improper method of fast bowing, the unnatural distribution of bows when playing, and the constraining feeling of pressing the left finger. When the above phenomenon occurs, you should first check whether the playing method is correct and loose, and whether the distribution of the bow is reasonable and natural. Although each person's method is different in actual performance, the playing methods that conform to physiological laws such as relaxation and naturalness should be recognized by everyone. In my opinion, when playing fast bows, the fingers of the right hand should naturally hold (rather than pinch) the bow shaft, combined with the action of the forearm close to the wrist, in a state similar to the feeling of hitting a gong at a faster speed. Bowing strength and distribution of bows (bowing position and bowing range) should generally be determined according to the mood of the music melody, and the strength of expressing briskness should be smaller; when expressing a warm and unrestrained mood, the strength of holding the bow and wiping the strings is the same. It should be appropriately enlarged, the part of the bow should be close to the middle bow, and the feeling of holding the bow should be more stable and firm. If you encounter a fast melody with frequent changing of the handle, you should start practicing at a slower speed based on the grasp of your left hand, and then gradually play at a normal speed after the two hands cooperate tacitly. Some people play a continuous fast bow relatively smoothly, but when they encounter frequent rhythm changes in melody notes and need to continuously change strings to play, they are not so smooth and sure, and some even cause nervousness and performance due to improper methods. in a hurry. In this case, you should first solve the problems of string changing method and rhythm feeling, and then adjust the method of fast bow. At the same time, it is very beneficial to do more targeted exercises on weekdays to better master and use the fast bow skills.