Shou County: Intangible Heritage Sounds You Can Hear in the Gongs and Drums

231 views · Organized by 拙 on 2022-06-23

Shouzhou was once the capital of Chu State during the Warring States Period, and the Chu culture has a profound accumulation. Among them, "Shouzhou gongs and drums" have become a signboard of Chu culture. Shouzhou gongs and drums are a kind of traditional folk performing arts spread in Shou County and the surrounding cities and counties along the Huai River. It is the product of the ancient Chu culture and is known as "talking gongs and drums". , simple instruments play wonderful music. In 2006, the Anhui Provincial People's Government approved the Shouzhou gongs and drums to be included in the first batch of provincial intangible cultural heritage lists.

Shou County: Intangible Heritage Sounds You Can Hear in the Gongs and Drums

Shouzhou gongs and drums in performance.

Today, in the ancient city of Shouzhou, many gong and drum teams are active, and gong and drum performances are held during the festivals. On June 17, reporters from Huaihe Morning Post and Huainan.com came to Shou County and interviewed Luo Xilin, the inheritor of the provincial intangible cultural heritage of Shouzhou gongs and drums.

It has a long history and originated from the court music and dance of the Chu Kingdom

Shou County is the former capital of Chu State. Chu people are happy and good at dancing, which is very popular. The music and dance of Chu State can be roughly divided into two categories: sacrificial music and dance and court music and dance. The main purpose of sacrificial music and dance is to entertain the gods, with a very strong witchcraft color. The instruments used are mainly drums, mixed with Xiao, Zhong, Yu, Se, etc.; Se and chime are also inseparable from drums. "Historical Records: Chu Family" records: In the 22nd year of King Kaolie of Chu (241 BC), "the east of Chu moved to the capital Shouchun, and the life was called Ying". In Shouchun, it went through four kings for a total of 18 years, until AD He was killed by Qin in 223 BC. Shouchun, the capital of the Chu State, was the center of the late Chu culture. The profound accumulation of the Chu culture, including drum music, has been accompanied by the life of the descendants of the Chu State, and it has been prosperous for a long time. "Shou County Chronicle" contains: "Gongs and drums are percussion instruments that are popular in Shoudi. In the old days, there were Wangjia gongs and drums in Chengguan, and Dengjiaban and Songjiaban in Zhengyangguan. At the beginning of the founding of New China, there were Wu Shoulin, Zhu Maosen, etc., who worshiped Song Song Tingxian of the family class was the teacher, and later it was passed down to Chen Jiali, Wang Chunlin, etc."

Shouzhou gongs and drums are traditional music loved by the people along the Huai River. The percussion instruments used are "steel gongs", big sieve gongs, big waist drums, big cymbals, small cymbals, small gongs, cloud gongs, dog gongs, etc. The main instruments are gongs and drums. The music score of Shouzhou gongs and drums integrates the traditional "Eighteen Fans", "Phoenix Three Nods", "Rabbit's Nest", "Chang Liushui", "Hua Drum Song", "Big and Small Twisted Silk", "Twisted Twisted Silk" and "Xiao Wufan" along the Huai area. Waiting for the essence of gongs and drums. "Eighteen Fans", the rhythm is soothing, like a narrative poem, eloquent and full of charm. "Phoenix Nods Three" and "Long Flowing Water" are fast-paced, high-pitched, and inspiring. The traditional program of Shouzhou gongs and drums "Shouyang New Year", the music score structure is divided into three parts: "Dragon Tiger Fight", "Zhuang Yuan Xing" and "Chu Capital Style", which are based on major historical events and historical figures in the history of Shou County. The folk customs and folk customs are used as the material, which vividly expresses the profound cultural heritage of the ancient city.

In recent years, Shou County has paid more and more attention to the excavation of Chu culture and the protection of intangible cultural heritage. In accordance with the requirements of creative transformation and innovative development of excellent traditional culture, it has comprehensively strengthened the excavation, development, protection and utilization of Chu culture, and further promoted the work of Shouzhou gongs and drums. Inheritance and protection of folk art. "Shouzhou gongs and drums" have also appeared on the stage of the "national" brand for many times, and participated in the CCTV Happy China Tour, the Sino-Korea cultural exchange, the "First China Fubao Rural Culture and Art Festival", the opening ceremony of the Chinese Farmers' Song Festival, and the national "Intangible Cultural Heritage". ” exhibition and other large-scale activities, won the “Best Drum King Award” in the “Yuanzhong Cup” National Drum King Invitational Competition in Hongdong, Shanxi Province, the “Best Performing Team” in the first Yangtze River Delta Folk Art Festival and Folk Art Exhibition, the 14th China Folk Literature Mountain Flower Award "Excellent Folk Art Performance Award", etc.

In 2006, Shouzhou gongs and drums were included in the first batch of representative projects of intangible cultural heritage in Anhui Province. In terms of the characteristics of musical instruments, the main gong of Shouzhou gongs and drums, the "steel gong", is small in size, but thick, and its audio frequency is obviously different from other bronzes. When playing, the sound is very loud and crisp, and the transmission distance is long, and it can be heard clearly from several miles away, which is obviously different from the main gong of Huagudeng. In terms of conducting characteristics, the performance of Shouzhou gongs and drums is performed by the main gong player as the conductor, supplemented by the alternate command of the drummer and the gong player. In this way, the phenomenon of monotonous movements and rigid pattern during performance is avoided, and a performance situation with alternating movements and tacit cooperation is formed. The performance of Shouzhou gongs and drums not only has the characteristics of soothing and softness of the "Shifan gongs and drums" in the southern Fujian and Zhejiang regions of my country, but also has the characteristics of "powerful gongs and drums" and pandrums in the north (Central Plains), which are high-pitched and passionate.

Shou County: Intangible Heritage Sounds You Can Hear in the Gongs and Drums

Luo Xilin tells the story of him and Shouzhou gongs and drums.

Cultural heritage Shouzhou gongs and drums strike a new era

Luo Xilin, the inheritor of the provincial intangible cultural heritage, is 68 years old this year. "Shouzhou gongs and drums are deeply rooted in the common people. When I was a child, I could often hear the sound of Shouzhou gongs and drums, especially during the harvest season and the New Year's holiday. Those gongs and drums seemed to be able to speak, and they were fascinated by them unconsciously." Luo Xilin recalled that he had been practicing gongs and drums with old artists in the village since he was 12 years old, and this practice lasted for 56 years.

Today, Rossillin is mainly engaged in the work of teaching skills. There are more than 20 people in the Luo Xilin gong and drum team, mainly including gongs and drums, dry boats, ugly women, stubborn wives riding stubborn donkeys, small car lights, even incense, big-headed dolls, fork umbrellas, dragon dances, lion dances, and flower drum lanterns. , In the gong and drum team, the old, the middle and the young are combined to perform for the elders and villagers in Shou County and tourists from other places during the festivals or when there are major events. The sound of drums is rumbling, steady and vast, the sound of gongs is clanging, vigorous and agitated, warm and powerful... Shouzhou gongs and drums convey full emotions and have a high artistic appreciation value.

Primary school students learning Shouzhou gongs and drums.

It is reported that in order to strengthen the excavation, development, protection and utilization of Chu culture, Shou County regularly organizes large-scale street-walking activities on the annual cultural heritage day, Lantern Festival, National Day and other festivals, and actively participates in national, provincial and municipal activities, and continues to expand The reputation and popularity of "Shouzhou gongs and drums". Since 2013, Shou County has carried out Shouzhou gongs and drums into the campus activities. Starting from the second grade, Luo Xilin has trained 100 students of Shou County Experimental Primary School in each class. Because of its sonorous and powerful rhythm, it is very exciting and very popular among children. Nowadays, children playing gongs and drums will appear on the stage during festivals in Shou County. The sound of gongs and drums, the intangible cultural heritage passed down from generation to generation, not only enriches the spiritual world of children, but also further radiates the new charm of traditional culture! Luo Xilin said that gongs and drums are the treasures handed down by our ancestors, the business card of Shou County, and the pride of Shou County people. We will definitely work together to make up for our weaknesses, so that Shouzhou gongs and drums, the intangible cultural heritage flower, will bloom beautifully, and we will strive to do a good job of teaching and guiding the Shouzhou gongs and drums to go out of Huainan, out of Anhui, and to the whole country.

Reference materials and contributors
寿县:寿州锣鼓里 能听见非遗的非遗音

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