The evolution history of huqin and erhu

572 views · Organized by 雨童 on 2022-06-15

When it comes to huqin, people are familiar with it. So far, folk drum artists have a saying: Dou Mi Suona, Tam Mi Huqin. That is to say, if you learn to play the suona, you can master it after eating a bucket of rice, and if you learn to play the huqin, you need to eat a load of rice. It shows that learning to play the huqin is not achieved overnight, it takes a lot of effort.

China is a multi-ethnic country, and the ethnic groups in the north and the west are generally called Hu people. "Historical Records Zhao Shijia" "I want to wear clothes". "Luoyang Jialan Ji·Chengnan" contains: "The lion was presented by King Hu of Persia". It also refers to things from these peoples, such as huqin, walnut, pepper, etc.

The name Huqin, in the Tang and Song Dynasties, refers to the plucked stringed instruments of various ethnic groups in northern and western my country, such as pipa and Hulei, collectively referred to as Huqin.

The evolution history of huqin and erhu

As a stringed instrument, it was first recorded in Shen Kuo's "Mengxi Bi Tan" in the Song Dynasty. Quoted from the third part of "The Song of Victory": "The Horsetail Huqin follows the Han Cha". In the Yuan Dynasty, the Mongolian people ruled China, and the huqin began to be used for banquets in the "Records of the Yuan Shiji·Lezhi". In the early days of the founding of the People's Republic of China, the shape of the horse-tailed huqin was still the head of a scroll-necked dragon, which was called the dragon-headed huqin. Even Vietnam and other countries still use the dragon-headed huqin to accompany singing, dancing and drama performances. The "Huobusi" mentioned above should be the earliest name of the horsetail huqin.

In ancient times, the names of Chinese musical instruments had only one character, such as qin, se, bell, drum, chime, qing, drum, xun, 竽 and so on. According to the records of unearthed cultural relics and historical documents, more than 30 kinds of musical instruments appeared in the pre-Qin period. At that time, according to the materials of musical instruments, people classified many musical instruments into eight categories, called octaves, that is, gold, stone, silk, bamboo, bamboo, earth, leather, and wood.

The rulers of the feudal dynasties of all dynasties used octave ensembles at all feasts, suburban temples, various celebrations, sacrifices and other ceremonies. According to legend, the "Shao Le" composed by Emperor Shun has been inherited in the palaces of the past dynasties and has been constantly evolving. The Qing History Draft records that in the second year of Shunzhi (AD 1645), the ancestor of the Qing Dynasty, "there is something to speak of, the Spring and Autumn Period, Ding Shi respected the teacher, and the six music performances." Music, Emperor Kangxi set sacrificial music ritual as the highest level of ritual music, and highly praised "Zhonghe Shao Yue". In the second year of Yongzheng's reign (1724 AD), the Taichang Temple of the Qing court ordered the various queli divisions to send musicians to Beijing to perform.

Qing Daoguang's "Yongzhou Fuzhi·School Record" contains "the eight-sound instrument, the sage's law and eight winds, its sound comes from the five elements, the law of its making has twelve laws, the degree, and ten. There are two tones for it, the same amount, and a certain tone? There are twelve tones, which are clear and turbid, high and low, and the eight tones overcome the harmonics. It can be used to match the gods, harmonize the upper and lower, cultivate oneself and govern others. Change the climate, Change the customs, so that the plants, trees, birds and beasts can be inspired, covering the heaven and the earth, and all the yin and yang qi can be sensed.” (The Qin Dynasty musical instruments are as follows)

Metal musical instruments in Qin Dynasty: bell, chime, yong, zheng, duo

Stone musical instruments include: chime, chime

Silk musical instruments include: Qin, Se, Zheng, Zhu

Bamboo musical instruments include: xiao, chi, xiao, pipe, etc.

The musical instruments of the genus include: Sheng, Yu, etc.

Earth musical instruments include: xun, whistle, can, etc.

Leather musical instruments include: Jiangu, Tuogu, Bengu, Yinggu, Boshu, etc.

Wooden musical instruments include: 柷, 镔, etc.

During the Han Dynasty, there was a new development of culture. During this period, there were exchanges with the Western Regions. Not only did they send bells, chimes, qin, sheng and musicians to West Asia, as well as music theory, but also imported from the Western Regions Qiang flute, eggplant, horn, etc. Vertical, Konghou, Wu, Li, Quxiang Pipa, etc.

During the Sui and Tang dynasties, music has been greatly developed. There are nine pieces of music, and many great tunes such as "Liu Yao Daqu", "Izhou Daqu", "Liangzhou Daqu", "Bomei Daqu" and so on. Daqu is also known as Faqu, and the famous Faqu includes "Red and White Peach and Plum Blossom", "Neon Clothes and Feather Clothes" and so on. Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty was very fond of Faqu, and ordered the children of Liyuan to learn what is called Fabu. Musical instruments include cymbals, cymbals, bells, pans, buildings, xiao, pipa and so on.

From the history of music in China to the Tang Dynasty, although Chinese music has developed a lot, there is no record of the horsetail huqin pulling a stringed instrument. Only in the Song Dynasty Shen Kuo's "Mengxi Bitan" did the record of "the horsetail huqin follow the Han carriage". Whether the emperors of all dynasties excluded the Hu culture from the Han culture, or whether the craftsmanship and performance of the huqin were not good enough, there is no basis in the history books, and it is difficult to determine. However, the records in "Yuan Shi Liyue Zhi" are more clear - "The huqin is like fire without thinking, the neck is rolled with a dragon head, the second string is drawn with a bow, and the bow string is tied with a horse's tail" and used for banquets, indicating that the huqin is a stringed instrument. features and applications.

The rulers of the Yuan Dynasty were Mongolians (Hu people), and naturally they wanted to develop their own musical instruments, while the dragon was the totem of the Han culture. The curly neck horse head, the Han people will think it is a foreign musical instrument. Since then, the huqin has established its status as a stringed instrument in Chinese folk music.

Since the Ming Dynasty, the huqin has been rapidly developed and widely used in the folk. In various occasions such as weddings and weddings, playing dragons and lions, temple fairs, festival celebrations, welcoming guests and other occasions, it is necessary to play music to show the solemn etiquette.

With the great development of opera, the huqin in folk opera music has become a stringed instrument in the palm of the hand, called the main string or the main hu. It has also penetrated into various dharma gatherings and dojos of Buddhism and Taoism, and has become an indispensable stringed instrument in religious music.

Due to the differences in Chinese culture, folk customs, national living habits and appreciation, and aesthetic habits, Huqin plays stringed instruments. Hu (alto huqin) and low hu (bass huqin) have various shapes, and they cooperate with each other to play wonderful music.

In the south, most of them are made of bamboo tubes and poles, such as Hu Datong, the master of Huagu Opera in Hunan, Hu Wengqin, master of Jiangxi Tea Picking Opera, etc., all of which are made of the same material. There are also some local conditions, such as Banhu, Yuehu, Yehu, Zuihu. Minorities have also produced stringed musical instruments with their own national characteristics, such as the Mongolian matouqin, the Uyghur Aijie, the Tibetan Biwang iron qin, the Sani’s sanxian, the Zhuang’s horse bone hu, the main string of Peking Opera, Jinghu and Chaoshan. The principle of the local horn huqin and so on is the derivative change of the horsetail huqin. The huqin has been spread and evolved in the folk, but the performance skills have not undergone a qualitative leap. Most of them use the left middle knuckle to press the strings, and they can also be played independently without the top handle, expressing some kind of emotional solo music. Playing skills develop slowly.

Erhu: Mawei Huqin is the most well-developed national stringed instrument in modern China.

Erhu, which should be called Erxian Huqin, is now called Erhu by convention. From the 1920s to the present, it has been continuously researched and improved, and now it is becoming more and more perfect. It has a unified shape. The musical instrument factory generally uses wood (the folks mostly use bamboo, the diameter of the piano is about 8.9 cm, and the good texture is red sandalwood or mahogany. For the piano bar and the piano barrel, the second string is set according to the relationship of fifths, (mostly set as the inner string d, the outer string a) to adjust the pitch, and the bow root is equipped with a fish tail, so that the ponytail can be adjusted to a suitable tension. , One end is covered with python skin or snake skin. The strings were originally made of cocoon silk. Now they are made of steel wire, which is durable and strong. The piano code is placed in the center of the snake skin of the piano barrel. Among the national bands, there are still various types of systems such as Gaohu, Erhu, Zhonghu, Dahu, and Lowhu. This is a Chinese national stringed instrument developed corresponding to the Western stringed instruments violin, viola, cello, and double-duty piano. The two-string ponytail huqin series has been widely used.

In the late 20th century, the erhu performer and modern composer Liu Tianhua (1895~1932), a native of Jiangyin, Jiangsu Province, was born who was devoted to revitalizing folk music. He taught at Peking University, Music Institute and other art schools. In 1927, he founded the Chinese Music Improvement Society. He not only has a deep understanding of ancient music, but is good at erhu and pipa, but also studied Western wind music, piano and violin. Influenced by the May Fourth ideology of democracy and progress, he began to develop our national musical instruments, especially the reform of erhu and pipa and the creation of music. He wrote "Singing in the Night" (also known as "Good Night"), "Singing in Sickness", "Moon Night", "Birds in the Sky", "Bright Walk", etc. He also wrote many erhu etudes as erhu After Liu Tianhua's innovation, a series of erhu performance skills, such as glissando, overtone, pause, legato, and decorative tone, began to be standardized, and the erhu range was expanded to three octaves and five positions. The mode, the structure of the music, and the chapters and paragraphs are also very particular. The artistic conception of the music is described, and the expression of the emotions and thoughts of various music is also further explored.

At the same time, there were also outstanding erhu performers such as Hua Yanjun (also known as Blind A Bing), a native of Wuxi, Jiangsu, from a poor family. Excellent blind artist. He composed Erhu pieces such as "Erquan Reflecting the Moon", "Listening to the Pine" and "Big Waves Washing the Sand". "Erquan Reflecting the Moon" is not only a classic of Chinese folk music, but also a world famous song, which has been widely praised at home and abroad.

Equivalent to this period, due to the revival of urban literary life, Jiangnan Sizhu gradually prospered, and began to become a music genre with various genres and many performers and repertoires. Zheng Liangwen and others organized a Datong concert in Shanghai. They sorted out some excellent pieces, such as "Xiao and Drums in the Sunset" now called "Chunjiang Flower Moonlight Night", "Yu Shun Smoked Wind Song", "Three Six", "Three Lanes of Plum Blossoms", etc. , Erhu is the main instrument, playing the soft melody of Jiangnan silk and bamboo music.

At this time, the Cantonese opera revolution took place in Guangdong opera, and Cantonese music gradually became independent from opera music and became a very dynamic new type of music. Erhu evolved into Cantonese Hu, and created a group of music with southern style. Its representative works such as "Dry Sky Thunder", "Pinghu Autumn Moon", "Rain Beats Plantains", "Backgammon", "Colorful Clouds Chasing the Moon" and so on.

Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, the North's Zuihu, Jinghu, Banhu, etc., have all developed successively. The representative music includes "Hundred Birds Chaofeng", "Six Animals Prosperity" and imitating human voice singing and percussion of gongs and drums, "Deep Night", "Small Open Door". " stands out from the accompaniment of Peking Opera, and has been processed and adapted to form a Beijing-style Jinghu Concerto, which is unique in style and technique in stringed instruments.

From the Song Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty, the stringed huqin series has developed somewhat in the history of Chinese folk music, but it is still relatively slow. In the past 100 years since the late 1920s, the huqin has developed into a splendid national musical instrument with diverse styles, numerous talents, superb performance skills and numerous musical compositions. Today's erhu not only can only be played by sitting in the past, but it has developed into a standing performance, supplemented by the physical complement to the sense of music. It can not only play Chinese music, but also foreign music. With the introduction of modern technology and electro-acoustics, it can be enjoyed by the audience. Leave unforgettable audio and visual enjoyment.

Although the huqin has made great progress and progress, the Chinese national musical instrument system is still not perfect, and the stringed instrument is still lacking in bass. Some orchestras use double cello or matouqin, as well as the newly developed double piano to replace the bass part, but the shape and sound quality are inconsistent, incomplete, and the sound quality cannot pass the test, leaving Chinese and foreign audiences with regret. I believe that musicians will carefully study and solve this problem.

Reference materials and contributors

Involving musical instruments

It is popular all over the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, especially in Horqin and Zhaowuda League in the east.
Erhu (Pinyin: Erhu) originated in the Tang Dynasty, called "Xiqin", and has a history of more than a thousand years. It is a traditional Chinese stringed instrument. Erhu, or Erxian Huqin, also known as "Nanhu" and "Omzi", is one of the main bowed and stringed instruments (wiping strings) in the Chinese national musical instrument family.

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