Guanzi, anciently known as bi li , jia guan. In ancient times, there was a kind of wind instrument called "pipe". "Book of Songs, Zhou Song, You Gu": "If you are prepared, you will play, and the flute tube will be prepared." "Erya Shile": "The big tube is called the posthumous title." "Shuowen Jiezi": "Guan Ruchi, six holes".
"Book of Songs, Records of Music": "...Cai Yong said in a sentence, 'The person who manages is long, long, and wide, with holes and no bottom'. His utensils are dead today." Such tubes have long been lost. The Yungang Grottoes excavated since the Northern Wei Dynasty have the image of blowing pipes.
It was used in the court band in the early years of the Kaihuang Emperor of the Sui Dynasty (around 581), and was widely used in the nine and ten pieces of music in the Sui and Tang Dynasties. Guanzi became a part of Jiaofang Dale in the Song Dynasty, and it is known as the head pipe. Early tubes were made of bamboo.
Tang Li Qi's "Listening to An Wanshan's Song of Blowing the Brick": "The Nanshan Cuts the Bamboo as the Brick". Bai Juyi's "Children Xue Yang's Tao Chui Yu Song": "Cut the dry reeds and insert the cold bamboos". Song "Book of Music": "Zhuji, ... with bamboo as the tube and reed as the head".
"Yuan Shi·Rite and Music Records": "The instrument of Yan music is controlled by the head, with bamboo as the tube, rolled reed leaves as the head, and seven orifices". In the Ming Dynasty, the body of the tube was changed to wood. "Ming Hui Dian Dale System": "The head tube is made of wood..., the two ends are bundled with teeth, and the reed is used as a whistle". The sound of the wooden pipe is more honest. During the Ming and Qing dynasties, pipes were widely popular among the people.