The history and development of clocks

524 views · Organized by 象牙山首富 on 2022-02-24
Most of the bells in the middle and late Spring and Autumn Period are a group of nine pieces. On the basis of the Western Zhou bell, the bass sound and the business sound were added. When these two tones are positive drum sounds, the side drum tones become the major third degree of change palace and change sign. Thus, the positive drum tones of the whole group of chimes form a complete pentatonic scale, and the entire tone sequence can form a six-tone or seven-tone scale. For example, a set of button bells unearthed from Tomb No. 1 (Chunqiu Chu Tomb) in Xichuan, Henan During this period, the bells produced two tones each, and the bird patterns were generally not cast on the side drums.
In the Warring States Period, in addition to the nine bells, there were thirteen and fourteen bells.
The chimes of the tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng in Suixian County, Hubei Province are the largest bells discovered so far, with a total of 64 pieces. It is suspended in three layers on a curved ruler-shaped clock frame. There are three sets of nineteen bells hanging on the upper tier; three sets of 45 bells are hung on each of the middle and lower two tiers. The smallest is 20.4 cm high and weighs 2.4 kg; the largest is 153.4 cm high and 203.4 kg. The total weight is more than 2500 kg.
The range of this chime is C-c4, about five octaves. A complete chromatic sequence is formed in the central tone area of g-c3, which can be rotated. There are seal inscriptions on each bell body, with a total of about 2,800 characters, which are used to indicate the rank name of each bell's pronunciation and its relationship with the five countries or regions such as Chu, Jin, Qi, Zhou, and Shen. Correspondence of each law (tone). The bell frame is placed on the west and south sides of the tomb. The west frame is 7.48 meters long and 2.65 meters high; the south frame is 3.35 meters long and 2.73 meters high. The middle and lower columns are six bronze saber warriors. The full set of chimes is magnificent and the scene is spectacular.
The discovery of this chime has largely made up for the lack and inadequacy of literature records, and has important historical and scientific value. It vividly shows the splendid achievements made by the music culture and bronze casting process in the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period of our country. It is a treasure of the Chinese nation, and it is an unprecedented major discovery in the history of archaeology and music in my country and the world. Following the chime of Hou Yi of Zeng, another group of 36 chimes was found in the No. 2 tomb of Leigudun, Suixian County, Hubei Province.

The history and development of clocks

From the Warring States Period to the Western Han Dynasty, in the ruins of southwestern China, such as Yunnan, Guangxi, Guangdong, Sichuan and other places, various double-horned button-shaped bells and barrel-shaped bells with unique local characteristics were found. They are musical instruments used by ethnic minorities in the southwest.
During the Qin and Han Dynasties, the ritual and music system since the Zhou Dynasty completely collapsed, the prosperity of the pre-Qin Zhongpan music also ended, and the production of two-tone chimes disappeared.
According to historical records, Qin Shihuang cast the pillars of the bell stand in Xianyang, "Zhong Yu Jinren Twelve", and also built the "Bell of Thousand Stones" and "Zi of Ten Thousand Stones". Such a huge bell should refer to the morning bell. It is a symbol of imperial power and monarchy in all dynasties. With the rise of Buddhism and Taoism, after the Eastern Han Dynasty, Buddhist bells (also known as Brahma bells) and Dao bells were used in temples and Taoist temples. The earliest extant Buddhist bell was cast in the seventh year of Chen Taijian (575) during the Southern and Northern Dynasties, and it is now at the place of Gentaro Inoue, Tokyo, Japan. After the Tang Dynasty, giant Buddhas and Dao bells were often cast by emperors, such as the "Jingyun Bell" in Jinglong Temple in Chang'an City (now Xi'an) in Tang Dynasty, the "Yongle Bell" in Beijing's Dazhong Temple, and the "Yongle Bell" cast in Yongle (1403-1424) of Ming Dynasty. big clock". Their practical use is to tell the time. The Yongle Bell is 6.94 meters high and has a diameter of 3.3 meters. It weighs 46.5 tons. So far, the sound is mellow and bright, and can be transmitted to dozens of miles. Inside and outside the clock, there are seventeen types of Buddhist scriptures cast in neat regular script, totaling more than 227,000 characters. This bell is well-known both at home and abroad for its loud sound, superb casting technology and calligraphy art, and has the reputation of the ancient "bell king".
In order to restore the ancient system of Zhou Li, the emperors of the Qin and Han dynasties also cast the bells and mushrooms used in Yale. For example, during the Southern and Northern Dynasties, Emperor Wudi of Nanliang used twenty-six bells and five hundred and four pieces, all of which were prepared with twelve laws. In the Song Dynasty, the retro style was especially prosperous. During the reign of Emperor Huizong of the Song Dynasty (1101-1125), he set up the "Dasheng House", an institution in charge of music, and cast twelve sets of chimes, about 300 pieces. So far, there are still some that have been recorded and circulated in the world. There are more than ten pieces, the shape of which is imitated from the Song Gongxu bell of the Song Dynasty in the Spring and Autumn Period unearthed in Yingtianfu (now Shangqiu, Henan) at that time. This device is called a bell, but it is actually a mushroom. The existing Dasheng Ruibin Bell in the Palace Museum has a height of 28 cm, a double-dragon-shaped complex button, a flat mouth, and the zheng, seal, and drum parts are decorated with pan-patterns. On the front is the inscription "Da Sheng", and on the back is the inscription "Rui Bin". Pitch #f1.
The chimes used in the Qing court were a set of sixteen pieces. Suspended on two tiers of bell racks, eight pieces on each tier. From Beiyi Ze to Ying Zhong, there are twelve laws plus four times laws.
Ethnic musical instrument manufacturers, scientific research units and ethnic orchestras continue to develop and use antique chimes.
Reference materials and contributors

Involving musical instruments

The chime (pinyin: Zhōng) is a traditional Chinese percussion instrument that began in the Bronze Age. The bells are cast in bronze, and different bells are arranged according to size and hang on a huge bell stand. Chimes are often used in combination with chimes; the "gold" in "Sound of Gold and Stone" refers to chimes, and "stone" refers to chimes.

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